Duration : 3 months (November 1st 1999 to 31st January 2000)


Need & Design
Population & Sample
Data Collection
Material Used
Reliability & Validity


Objectives :

  1. To study the infrastructure (quantity and quality) in Private and Parishad primary schools. (Infrastructure includes physical, human and material)
  2. To study enrollment from 1995-1996 to 1999-2000 along with the rate of growth in Govt./Private schools.
  3. To compare the over all cost of education borne by parents of children attending Private and Government schools.
  4. To study the availability of teaching-time and learning opportunities in the two sets of schools.
  5. To study the teacher characteristics profile, teachers salary and job security in the two types of schools.
  6. To study the teacher-pupil ratio and male-female teacher ratio in both Private and Government schools.
  7. To study teacher’s ways of transacting curriculum in both types of schools by observation.
  8. To study achievement levels of pupils in Private and Parishad run primary schools.
  9. To study parents’ views on school and teacher.
  10. To study the pattern of supervision in the two sets of school.
  11. To study enrollment in unrecognized and alternate schools in the villages in which the sampled schools are located.
  12. To study community member’s view on school and teacher.
  13. To study VEC members view on school and teacher.


Tools : The following tools were administered within the actual school settings to obtain the relevant data for this study.

  1. School Schedule
  2. Teachers Schedule
  3. Classroom Observation Schedule
  4. Achievement Test (i) Hindi and (ii) Mathematics
  5. Parents Schedule
  6. ABSA’s Schedule
  7. VEC’s Schedule

Population : The population constituted the schools, the teachers, the guardians and the supervisory staff of Bareilly district.


Data was collected from all the students of class V in 15 Private and 30 Parishad schools of three blocks (Faridpur, Bhuta & Kyara) of Bareilly district.

Besides taking school records relevant information was gathered from teachers, parents, community, VEC members and ABSA’s with the help of questionnaires.

Research Findings and Implications :

  1. It was found that available physical facilities are better in Private schools than in

    Parishad schools

  2. Minority group students are more attracted to private schools. Whereas the S.C./ S.T

    students have greater liking for Parishad schools.

  3. The percentage increase in the enrollment of S.C. students is 28% in case of boys and 41% in case of girls. On the other hand for general candidates the increase is 19% for boys and 45% for girls.
  4. Girls have been found to be developing more interest in studies as number has increased significantly.
  5. Teachers in Private schools teach for more number of days and greater number of hours than in Parishad schools.
  6. The staff is better qualified in Private schools though mostly untrained, whereas in Parishad schools all the teachers are trained.
  7. The teachers in Private schools do not receive any in-service training as the teachers in the Parishad schools.
  8. In the Private schools the monthly salary of teachers ranges from Rs. 500- Rs. 3500.

    In Parishad schools the monthly salary ranges from Rs. 3000- Rs. 7500.

  9. In Parishad schools the teachers are in service for greater number of years and hence have more experience than the teachers in Private schools who do not have job security and are there for comparatively longer period.
  10. The Private school teachers aspire for jobs in the Parishad schools as there is more job security.
  11. In Private schools the teachers do not get any money for TLM as provided to the teachers of the Parishad schools.
  12. In Private schools more number of teachers give special attention to weak students than the teachers in the Parishad schools.
  13. More number of teachers in Private are relatively free to offer private tuitions than the Parishad school teachers.
  14. In both Private and Parishad schools majority of teachers do not have their own text books and they use the books of students.
  15. In majority of Private schools the students receive home work and get them checked regularly than Parishad schools.
  16. It was found that majority of students from Parishad schools got poor marks on both the Hindi and Mathematics achievement tests.
  17. The difference between the performance of the students of Private and Parishad schools is significant beyond 1% level.
  18. Most of the parents who send their children/wards to Private schools are more educated than the parents who send their children/wards to Parishad schools.
  19. Greater number of parents were found to be satisfied with the teaching in Private schools and were of the opinion that ‘quality education’, ‘good discipline’, ‘individual attention’ and ‘English medium’ were the main source of attraction to the Private schools.
  20. The ABSAs are of the opinion that the functioning of the Private schools is better than that of the Parishad schools and that the Private school students show better achievement level.
  21. The V.E.C. members consider ‘quality education’, ‘good discipline’, ‘attentive, dedicated and punctual teachers’ and ‘teaching of English’ as important factors leading to better functioning of Private schools.
  22. The opinion of the V.E.C. members against the functioning of Private schools were mainly ‘untrained teachers’, ‘expensive education’ and ‘no scholarships’.
  23. As regards the contribution of Private unrecognized schools it was found that these schools are greatly helping in expanding primary education.

Recommendation based upon the Implications of the Research Findings :

  1. Private schools should be encouraged to expand Primary education and hence improve the standard of education. This can be done by giving some facilities like TLM, in-service training proper supervision and feedback.
  2. The number of students per teacher is quite unmanageable in Parishad schools. It is therefore suggested that more teachers be appointed in Parishad schools and the vacant post be filled as early as possible.
  3. Physical facilities available in Parishad schools like the building, playground, sports material, desks, chairs are quite inadequate. Attempts should be made to meet these requirements as far as possible.
  4. Teachers job has traditionally been taken in our country in high esteem and regards. Their status can be raised if they receive some regards by higher government officials. At present they are being used for just clerical jobs whether it is a campaign for ‘polio’ or ‘election duties’, or ‘other electoral roles’ etc.
  5. Parishad schools should introduce English from class I and give importance to school dress, homework and discipline.
  6. To ensure proper and regular teaching. ABSA’s must make regular inspection of the schools under them.
  7. Extra burden on teachers by way of additional work load besides teaching should be avoided.

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