STUDY OF ACHIEVEMENTS OF PRIMARY SCHOOL STUDENTS WITH, AND WITHOUT PRE-PRIMARY
Duration : 6 months (10th December 1997 to
10th June 1998)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Review of Literature
Relevance of Study
Population & Sample
Reliability & Validity
Interpretation of Test Results
Implications of the Research Findings
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF THE REPORT :
Objectives : The objectives of the study were to
investigate whether the
- primary school students achieve the MLL.
- achievement of the students with, and without pre-primary education is
- socio-economic status is significantly related to primary school
- school developed educational abilities are correlated with school
- school climate has any effect on school achievement.
Variables : The Independent variables were
- School Climate
- Socio-economic status
The Dependent variable was Achievement of the two
A. Intelligence Scale (Raven’s
Coloured Progressive Matrices)
- Socio-Economic Status Scale :- The socio-economic status scale used in our
present study, was developed and standardised by Ms. Ruby Dkhar for her Ph.D.
work in Education in the year 1997.
- School Climate Scale :- The school climate scale was developed by Dr.
- Achievement Scales :- In this study, it was decided to test the students
in two subjects. (a) Arithmetic and (b) Hindi Language.
- Arithmetic Test – The test was an adaptation of Dr. S. Dubey’s* (1991)
- Hindi Language Test : The criteria included in this test were the
competencies laid down in Minimum Levels of Learning at Primary Stage
published by National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi
Population : The population comprised of students of class
V in primary schools of Allahabad district having pre-primary sections. Two
blocks under the Allahabad district – ‘Chail’ and ‘Mooratganj’ were
Sample : The final sample consisted of 19 schools that had
been, later on clustered into following 15 centers :
- Pawan I and II
- Giriya Khalsa
- Bamrauli I and II
- Sallahpur I and II
- Manauri I and II
The number of students in the PP group was 137 whereas the
number of students in the WPP group was 181. Thus, the of total sample consisted
Research Findings and Implications :
It was found that in primary schools various incentives are
given to students, in the form of rice-distribution and scholarships, whereas in
pre-primary section no such incentives exist. The result is that pre-primary
sections are almost deserted by students, and guardians. If they have to admit
the child to school they get him/her admitted in class one and not in
pre-primary section. This was found to be one of the most significant reasons
for poor attendance reported in the primary schools of the villages.
- As it has been observed during the course of our study, that many
pre-primary school education institutions do not have their own building and
are running in one or two rooms. There is no play ground and no arrangement
for drinking water in these institutions. It seems, these schools are
established for show only and they have failed to stimulate young children in
real sense. In order to provide an effective early stimulation there is a
great need for systematic and scientific pre-primary school education
- Pre-primary school education programme should be non-formal because it is
not the stage of reading, writing and arithmetic. But the irony is that it is
completely formal in all nursery schools. The main reason is that most of the
pre-primary school teachers and principals are not nursery trained. They are
not familiar with the principles of child development. The same is true also
for parents. Mass awareness programmes and regulating measures are urgently
needed to cope with the problems.
- To reduce the number of drop-outs, wastage, and stagnation and to promote
the universalisation of primary education, it must be resolved by the
educationists and policy makers that before the primary education all children
of three to five years age group should be given nursery education so that
they can make their rapport with the schools.
- As most of the psychologists, educationists and policy-makers would agree
that the pre-primary school years of a child, constitute the period of his/her
maximum learning and intellectual development and hence of gross potential
educational significance, therefore there is an urgent need to provide a
thrust to all educational programmes that are directed towards promoting and
strengthening the permeation of pre-primary and primary education, among all
segments of the child population, ranging from 3 years to 8 years of age.
- For a pre-primary school programme to be effective, however, certain
features appear to be important : careful planning and implementation; low
child to staff ratio; high level of professional support; and moderate level
of parent’s involvement in the programme, and a cognitively focused programme,
designed within a clear framework of educational methods and goals.
- Our village children are by and large first generation learners and are
deprived of stimulation at home, as the parents being poor and illiterate, are
not in a position to give them much support. Thus, it reduces itself to the
fact that the responsibility to give stimulation and compensatory education
has to be borne by both organised governmental and non-governmental services
such as the early childhood education centres.
- Reliability of the Arithmetic test as estimated by the Kuder-Richardson
method was found to be 0.75.
- Reliability of Hindi Test (objective part) as estimated by
Kuder-Richardson formula = 0.95
- Reliability of Hindi test (subjective part) as estimated by Split-Half
method = 0.78.
- The reliability of the socio-economic status scale, obtained on the data
of the present sample, was found to be very low in the range of 0.02.
The reliability of the school climate scale as estimated by Kuder-Richardson
method was found to be 0.71 which is sufficiently high.
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